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Country Details

1. Size and Geography: Canada is the second-largest country in the world by land area, covering approximately 9.98 million square kilometers. It stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and shares the world's longest land border with the United States. Canada boasts diverse geography, including stunning mountain ranges (such as the Rockies), vast prairies, picturesque coastlines, and thousands of lakes and rivers.

2. Cultural Diversity: Canada is known for its multicultural society, with a rich blend of cultures and ethnicities. The country has a policy of multiculturalism, which celebrates diversity and promotes equality and inclusion. Canadians take pride in their cultural heritage, and you can experience a wide range of cuisines, festivals, and traditions from various cultures.

3. High Quality of Life: Canada consistently ranks among the top countries in the world for quality of life. It offers universal healthcare, excellent education systems, social welfare programs, and a safe and peaceful environment. The country's cities, including Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal, are renowned for their livability and vibrant cultural scenes.

4. Natural Beauty: Canada is blessed with breathtaking natural beauty, including stunning national parks, such as Banff, Jasper, and Gros Morne. The country is famous for its wildlife, including bears, moose, and whales. Visitors can enjoy outdoor activities like hiking, skiing, kayaking, and wildlife spotting in the country's pristine wilderness.

5. Hockey and Sports Culture: Ice hockey is Canada's national winter sport and holds a special place in Canadian culture. The country has a strong sports culture and has produced many world-class athletes. Canadians are passionate about a wide range of sports, including basketball, soccer, lacrosse, and curling.

These important facts highlight Canada's vast size and diverse geography, multicultural society, high quality of life, natural beauty, and sports culture. Whether you're exploring its stunning landscapes, immersing yourself in its diverse cultural heritage, or cheering on a hockey game, Canada offers a wealth of experiences for residents and visitors alike.

Immigration Details

To immigrate to Canada, there are several visa options available for different purposes. Here are the main ways to obtain residency or citizenship in Canada:

1. Express Entry:
- Purpose: Express Entry is a points-based system for skilled workers who want to immigrate to Canada permanently.
- Requirements: You must meet the eligibility criteria based on factors such as age, education, work experience, language proficiency, and adaptability.
- Duration: The processing time for Express Entry applications varies, but it can range from a few months to a year.

2. Provincial Nominee Programs (PNPs):
- Purpose: PNPs allow Canadian provinces and territories to nominate individuals who have the skills and qualifications needed in their specific region.
- Requirements: Each province or territory has its own eligibility criteria and streams under their PNP. Requirements can vary but generally include education, work experience, and a genuine intention to settle in the province.
- Duration: The processing time for PNP applications varies depending on the specific program and province.

3. Family Sponsorship:
- Purpose: Canadian citizens or permanent residents can sponsor their eligible family members to immigrate to Canada.
- Requirements: Both the sponsor and the sponsored person must meet certain eligibility criteria, and the sponsor must be able to financially support the sponsored person for a specified period.
- Duration: The processing time for family sponsorship applications varies but can take several months to over a year.

4. Start-up Visa:
- Purpose: The Start-up Visa Program is designed for immigrant entrepreneurs who have a viable business idea and the support of a designated organization in Canada.
- Requirements: You must have a qualifying business idea, obtain a letter of support from a designated organization, meet language and education requirements, and have enough funds to settle in Canada.
- Duration: The processing time for Start-up Visa applications varies, but it can take several months.

5. Study Permit:
- Purpose: This permit allows international students to study at designated learning institutions in Canada.
- Requirements: You need to have an acceptance letter from a Canadian educational institution, demonstrate sufficient funds to cover tuition fees and living expenses, and prove that you will leave Canada after completing your studies.
- Duration: The duration of a study permit depends on the length of the study program.

6. Canadian Experience Class (CEC):
- Purpose: The CEC is for individuals who have gained skilled work experience in Canada and want to transition to permanent residency.
- Requirements: You must have at least one year of skilled work experience in Canada, meet language requirements, and plan to live outside the province of Quebec.
- Duration: The processing time for CEC applications varies, but it can range from a few months to a year.

7. Business and Investor Immigration:
- Purpose: Canada offers several programs for individuals looking to invest or start a business in the country.
- Requirements: The specific requirements and capital investment thresholds vary depending on the program. Options include the Federal Startup Visa Program, Provincial Entrepreneur Programs, and the Quebec Investor Program.
- Duration: The processing time and duration for business and investor immigration programs can vary depending on the specific program.

8. Citizenship:
- Purpose: Canadian citizenship provides full rights and benefits, including the ability to live and work in Canada indefinitely.
- Requirements: To be eligible for citizenship, you must meet certain criteria, such as having permanent residency, meeting residency requirements, passing a citizenship test, and demonstrating knowledge of Canada.
- Duration: The citizenship application process can take several months to a year.

Fees, processing times, and required documents can vary depending on the visa type and individual circumstances. It is recommended to consult with the nearest Canadian embassy or consulate or seek professional advice to obtain accurate and up-to

-date information tailored to your situation.

  • Time To Citizenship
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There are several factors that determine an individual’s tax residency in Canada such as having a permanent domicile in the country or having business or social ties to the country. In any case, an individual who spends 183 days or more per year in the country may be considered a tax resident.

Tax residents are subject to federal income tax and provincial/territorial income taxes on their worldwide income. Non-residents are taxed on their income and capital gains derived from Canada.

Federal Income tax is progressive ranging from 15% to 33%.

Each territory or province levies its own income tax. Both taxes combined create effective tax rates ranging from 48% in Saskatchewan and Yukon, to 54% in Nova Scotia.

Fifty per cent of capital gains are included in taxable income and taxed at applicable tax rates. Non-eligible and eligible dividends from Canadian corporations are grossed up by 17% and 38%, respectively. Eligible dividends are those from Canadian public corporations or those from entities that are not controlled private corporations. Interest and rental income are treated as ordinary income.

Municipalities levy property taxes and land transfer taxes. There is no inheritance tax, however; an individual who dies is deemed to have disposed of any capital property immediately before death. This can result in any accrued capital gains being subject to income tax, and all provinces and territories impose probate fees or administrative charges for probating a will. There is no tax on net wealth in Canada.

The federal goods and services tax (GST) applies on most goods and services and is levied at a rate of 5%.

British Columbia, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan each levy retail sales tax at 7%, 8%, and 5%, respectively.

New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia , Ontario, Prince Edward Island have a fully harmonized sales tax that includes the GST. The tax rate is 15%, except in Ontario where it is 13%.

Quebec’s sales tax is 9.975%, resulting in an effective tax rate of 14.975%.

Neither Alberta, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon levy a retail sales tax. However, the GST is applicable in those jurisdictions.

This should not be construed as tax advice. We have access to a global network of qualified attorneys and accountants who can give you the proper advice for your particular circumstances. Contact us for further information.

  • Property Tax Yes
  • Transfer Tax Yes
  • Inheritance Tax Yes
  • Net Worth Tax No
  • CFC Law Yes
  • Tax Residency Days 183
  • Personal Income Tax Rate 51.4%
  • Capital Gains Tax Rate 25.7%
  • Investment Income Tax Rate 51.4%
  • Territorial Taxation No
Visa-Free Explain

Where Can Canadian Passport Holders Travel Without a Visa?

As of June 2023, Canadian passport holders can travel visa free to 147 countries and territories:

  • Albania
  • American Samoa
  • Andorra
  • Anguilla
  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Aruba
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Bahamas
  • Barbados
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Belize
  • Bermuda
  • Bolivia
  • Caribbean Netherlands
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Botswana
  • Brazil
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Brunei
  • Bulgaria
  • Cayman Islands
  • Chile
  • Colombia
  • Cook Islands
  • Costa Rica
  • Croatia
  • Curaçao
  • Cyprus
  • Czechia
  • Denmark
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • Ecuador
  • El Salvador
  • Estonia
  • Falkland Islands
  • Faroe Islands
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • France
  • French Guiana
  • French Polynesia
  • French West Indies
  • Gabon
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Gibraltar
  • Greece
  • Greenland
  • Grenada
  • Guam
  • Guatemala
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Indonesia
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kiribati
  • Kosovo
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Latvia
  • Lesotho
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macau
  • Malaysia
  • Malta
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Mexico
  • Micronesia
  • Moldova
  • Monaco
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro
  • Montserrat
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Namibia
  • Netherlands
  • New Caledonia
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Niue
  • North Macedonia
  • Northern Mariana Islands
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Palestine
  • Panama
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Puerto Rico
  • Qatar
  • Réunion
  • Romania
  • San Marino
  • São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Senegal
  • Serbia
  • Singapore
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • South Africa
  • South Korea
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Martin
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Suriname
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Taiwan
  • Tajikistan
  • Thailand
  • Gambia
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turks and Caicos Islands
  • United States Virgin Islands
  • Ukraine
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • Uruguay
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu
  • Vatican City
  • Zambia
  • Eswatini

For visa-free travels, you still must have a valid passport — usually six months after your departure date— and you must purchase travel health insurance as required by your destination country.

What Countries Issue eVisa to Canadian Citizens?

The following 12 countries issue eVisas for Canadian passport holders:

  • Angola
  • Azerbaijan
  • Benin
  • Djibouti
  • Ethiopia
  • Guinea
  • India
  • Kenya
  • Myanmar
  • Türkiye
  • Uganda
  • Vietnam

The process of getting an eVisa is more or less the same as applying for a traditional visa. However, in this case, you don’t have to visit a visa application center— you can submit your application online, including the visa payment.

After your application is approved, you will receive an email confirming your visa status along with a document you must print out and bring with you when crossing the border. Your visa will be registered online, but some officers may ask you for a physical copy of the permit; that is why it’s important to keep the copy on your person while traveling.

What Countries Issue Visa on Arrival to Canadian Passport Holders?

If you are a Canadian citizen, you can get a visa on arrival for the 38 countries listed below:

  • Armenia
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cambodia
  • Cabo Verde
  • Comoros
  • Egypt
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Jordan
  • Kuwait
  • Laos
  • Lebanon
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Maldives
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Nepal
  • Palau
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Paraguay
  • Rwanda
  • Samoa
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Solomon Islands
  • Somalia
  • Saint Helena
  • Tanzania
  • Timor-Leste
  • Togo
  • Tonga
  • Tuvalu
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Zimbabwe

You receive a visa on arrival (VOA) after entering the country that issues such a visa. Usually, there is a separate section at the airport where you can submit your application for your visa on arrival.

Countries With Visa Requirements for Canadian Citizens

You need a valid visa to enter the following 29 countries with a Canadian passport:

  • Afghanistan
  • Algeria
  • Bhutan
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • China
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Republic of the Congo
  • Ivory Coast
  • Cuba
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Ghana
  • Iran
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Mali
  • Nauru
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • North Korea
  • Russia
  • South Sudan
  • Sudan
  • Syria
  • Turkmenistan
  • Venezuela
  • Yemen

The application for a visa goes as follows:

  1. Make an appointment at the visa center in Canada. You must contact a local visa application center in your home country and make an appointment to submit your application. It may take several months to schedule a meeting with the embassy or consulate.
  2. Get your documents ready. To submit a successful application, you have to prepare the required documents for your visa, i.e., passport, application form, health insurance, etc. Some of your documents must be verified with an apostille stamp or certified by a foreign office.
  3. Submit your application. Finally, you can submit your application and attend the visa interview—you may also be required to submit your biometrics. Once you translate your documents as required by the embassy or consulate and verify them with an apostille stamp— if possible, then you can submit your application. From then it will take several weeks until a decision is made regarding your visa application.

Please note that if you have a valid visa that allows you to enter more than one country, you don’t have to apply for a new visa.

What Documents Do Canadian Citizens Need to Apply for a Visa?

Canadian citizens that want to visit countries that require them to apply for a visa beforehand need to submit a few documents. Depending on the country you want to visit, document requirements may vary. However, most countries will certainly require the following:

  • Your valid Canadian passport (plus a photocopy). Some countries require the passport to be valid for more than six months after the day you plan on departing their country.
  • A filled visa application form.
  • Passport pictures that are not older than six months.
  • Travel health insurance that covers your entire period of stay.
  • Proof of paid visa fee.
  • Detailed travel itinerary that shows all the places you want to visit.
  • Letter of invitation (if applicable)
  • Proof of booked return ticket for the flight home.
  • Proof of booked accommodation.
  • Proof that you have sufficient funds to cover your visit
  • Civil status documents (marriage papers, certificates of birth, etc.)
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